Salmon: There are seven distinct species. One kind, native to the Atlantic, six to the Pacific Ocean. The Chinook, Coho and Sockeye are also farm raised, but not comparable in flavor to wild. Salmon spawn in the Fall and Spring. They must be caught prior to reaching fresh water, while they are feeding and before they are spawning. . The pink to red flesh of these fish is rich and succulent, and is available fresh, smoked, or canned year round. Baking, poaching, and grilling are the recommended methods of cooking salmon.
Scrod (SKRAHD): term used on US EAST, primarily for small cod or young cod (and haddock) that weight less that 2.5 pounds. It is a popular fish from the Pacific and the North Atlantic with a lean, firm, white flesh. "Haddock," "hake," and "pollock" are close relatives of the cod.
Scallop (sk˘ol´ep) n. Bivalve Mollusk. Scallops belong to the genera Pecten. The name "scallop" aptly describes the fluted edges of the fan shaped scallop shell. The prized meat of this bivalve mollusk is often served in its own fluted shell. In U.S. markets, only the adductor muscle or the “eye”, which opens and closes the shell is available. The varieties commonly found in the U.S. market are usually labeled as either “bay” or “sea” scallops, but there are actually a number of species available. Wild scallops (usually labeled as sea scallops) from U.S. and Canada waters account for two-thirds of the U.S. scallop supply
A natural scallop is the entire eye from one scallop. Cubed scallops are pieces cut from a larger eye. Scallops are often shucked right on the boat. Most scallops are frozen either raw or breaded. The New England sea scallop Placepten magellinacus is the most commercially important scallop in the United States. It has a saucer shaped shell and grows as large as 8 inches in diameter with the muscle or "eye" sometimes reaching up to 2 inches across. Overcooking causes the delicate, buttery meat to become tough; small ones take only a few seconds, while larger ones are done within a minute or two.
Scampi - The Italian name for the tail portion of any of several varieties a small spiny lobster eaten in Europe. In the U.S., the term refers to large shrimp that are split and brushed in a garlic oil or butter, then broiled or baked. "Scampo" is the singular form.
Sea clams : Also know as a surf clam, is the largest hard shell clam. Most are chopped and frozen and used in prepared foods.
Sea scallops: The largest is caught off New England. This species provides most of our scallops.
Selects: Lobsters the weight between 1 1/2 to 1 3/4 pound.
Shedder: Very soft-shelled lobsters are watery with underdeveloped spongy claw meat. When a lobster outgrows its shell, it molts and discards or "sheds" the old shell. It then has a soft shell and is called a "shedder." As the lobster feeds, its shell hardens, and it adds meat to its body.
Shellfish: A broad term that refers to all aquatic animals that have a shell. This includes both crustaceans and mollusks , such as a sea scallop, lobster, Arctic surf clam, and crab or cold water shrimp.
Shorts: Also known as "sub-legals" Conservation is currently practiced through the safeguarding of lobsters less than 3¼" carapace length. Any lobster that has a smaller carapace length of 3¼" must be returned unharmed to the sea.
Shorts on : A term used in the industry to indicate a lobsterman who has caught lobsters under or above the legal size limit.
Shrimp : Shrimp are small crustaceans that have ten legs and long antennae and is distant kin to the lobster. This ten-legged crustacean got its name from English word "shrimpe," which means "puny person." Shrimp have a thin-segmented shell covering a tapering body, and a large head about the size of the body. Caught in great numbers and one of our most popular seafoods. First we consider the "tropical" shrimp, the most common to our market. They are produced in the Gulf of Mexico and in the waters of South America, Australia, the Far East and the Persian Gulf. . Although 342 species of shrimp worldwide have commercial value, there are only a few species that are important to the U.S. market. All shrimp are divided into three basic categories: cold-water or northern; warm-water, tropical, or southern; and freshwater. You may find all three categories in your local market. Shrimp can be either wild-caught or farm-raised. Wild-caught (or “free-range”) shrimp naturally exist in bays, estuaries, and oceans. Farm-raised shrimp are grown in a more controlled environment. Shrimp eggs or larvae are either gathered from the natural environment or grown in hatcheries after being taken from female brood stock. The shrimp are then raised to maturity in shallow ponds. Farm-raised shrimp are also known as pond-raised, cultured, aquacultured, or maricultured. All shrimp is sold in these ways: Headed in the shell (actually the body), which is also called "Green Shrimp." There must be six shell segments plus the tail to be considered a whole shrimp. Less than this must be sold as "Broken" or "Pieces." P&D (peeled and de-veined) is shrimp headed and shelled with the sand vein (viscera) along the spine removed. P&D are sold cooked and individually frozen. Shrimp is also sold "Breaded." Shrimp are sold by the “count,” which is the number of shrimp per pound. With shrimp it’s the size that counts. The larger the shrimp, the more expensive. In the market, you may also see descriptive size names such as small, medium, large, or jumbo. Compare prices based on actual count per pound, not these size descriptions, for they may vary from store to store. Shrimp can be frozen individually (called IQF), or in blocks. Most shrimp sold in U.S. supermarkets and fish markets have been frozen and thawed. Shrimp are also available canned.
Shucker: Person who opens fresh clams and oysters at a food station in front of guests.
Skipjack Tuna : Smallest of the light meat tuna but caught throughout the world. Used as chunk pack tuna.
Sleeper : Term for a lobster that is so sluggish it cannot hold up its claws. These have been out of their environment too long and are usually close to death. They should be avoided.
Snappers : Lobsters that are too small to take legally.
Soft shell Crab - The "soft-shell crab" is actually the blue crab caught just after molting (discarding its shell). This crab is found along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. It is sold in both its soft and hard-shell stages.
Soft Shell Clams : Soft shell clams are called steamers because they are best served that way! Wash well and place in a pot with 4 tablespoons of water. Simmer, covered, 5-10 minutes until shells partially open. Remove from pot with slotted spoon and serve in individual dishes. Dip each clam by its long neck in to melted butter, laced with lemon juice. Strain the broth and drink it, seasoned with celery salt, or mixed with tomato juice.
Spiny Lobster: The spiny lobster is found in waters off Florida, Southern California, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Unlike it's relative the American Lobster, it does not have front claws. Instead, it has spines that cover its body to help protect them from predators. It also has two long antennae used to scare off predators and smaller antennae called antennules used to detect movement and chemicals in the area. Because the Spiny Lobster inhabits warmer waters, it is caught both on a commercial and recreational basis. Also unlike their lobster relatives elsewhere, spiny lobsters seem to enjoy each other's company and often share their dens in coral reefs. One of the strangest sights ever reported is the so-called "lobster march." Often after a storm, hundreds or sometimes-even thousands of spiny lobsters will form columns to migrate en masse. Do they march in search of new breeding grounds, seeking warmer water, or hunting for a new food supply? It is still a scientific mystery why this occurs. The item marketed as “lobster tail” usually is a spiny lobster.
Soft-shell lobster : All known as a " shedder," this is a lobster that has recently shed its carapace to allow for new growth. At this stage, the yield of meat is low and its taste and texture are of lesser quality. A soft-shell lobster is harder than the new-shell lobster. The claws have hardened enough to be banded. Once cooked, the shell can usually be removed with bare hands. The only way Maine lobsters can grow is by shedding their shells and growing a new larger shell. When the shells are new, they are soft, which allows them to stretch to the new size. In the first year of a Maine lobster's life, this process occurs eight times; five times in the second year; three times in the third year. After that, male Lobsters shed their shell twice a year, while females shed only once a year.
Soft-Shell Clams : Soft-shell clam never fully closes because its neck gets in the way. Soft shell clams usually contain sand. Soak soft-shell clams (just cover, about ¼ cup salt per gallon) for a coupler of hours to rid them of remaining sand.
Squabble: Refers to a group of seagulls. You can see a 'flock' of sparrows, but you always see a 'squabble' of gulls.
Stone Crab: Latin name Menippe mercenaria, it is also called "moro" or "morro" crab. It has large, very hard claws that are prized for their meat. Most of the harvest comes from Florida, US, where it is a prized delicacy harvested from October 15 to May 15. Only the claws are eaten, so fishermen twist off one claw from crabs and toss them back to grow a new one. Crabs will regenerate their claws within 18 months. They are left with one claw to defend themselves. The law requires these claws to be boiled for 7 minutes and then either put on ice or frozen. The freezing process seems to remove an unpleasant iodine taste which is often noticed in the meat. To determine which claws have the most meat, they are floated in a tank of water, with the less meaty claws rising and being sold as "lights." To serve, the claws are cracked with a mallet and served cold with dipping sauces. Minimum size for claws is 2-2.75 ounces. The meat has a firm texture and a sweet, succulent flavor.
Steamers: Also know as soft shell clams. Steamers come in a variety of sizes, from about ½ to 3 inches across. Steamer clams are best served steamed or fried.
Stuffies: Baked stuffed quahogs are known as “stuffies” in Rhode Island and southern Massachusetts. Generally the quahog is used but littleneck clams can be stuffed and are perfect for cocktail parties. Whatever the size, they are usually made by mincing clam meat and mixing it with an onion, breadcrumbs and spices.
Stuffed Clams: Stuffed quahogs are often called stuffies, and the two terms are used interchangeably. The fresh-shucked clams are chopped or ground and mixed into a stuffing, which typically includes bread crumbs, Tabasco sauce, minced onions, celery, peppers and often the Portuguese sausage chourica (reflecting the influence of Rhode Island's large Portuguese population). The stuffing is then spooned back into the large clamshells and baked, resulting in a big, delicious serving. Stuffed quahogs are often called stuffies, and the two terms are used interchangeably throughout the state.
Swordfish: A large fish with the distinctive sword-like upper jaw. Caught in both the Atlantic and Pacific, they weigh 200-400 lbs. The meat is sold in chunks and steaks and is firm, not oily flesh.