Lobster 101

Maine lobster, also known as the American Lobster, is found in the waters between Eastern Canada and North Carolina, with Maine contributing to more than half of all lobsters caught in the United States. Maine lobster is easily distinguished from the “spiny” lobster (commonly called rock lobster) caught along the southern Atlantic coast and the coast of California by its large heavy claws. The spiny lobster has tiny claws and is usually marketed as uncooked frozen tails. Because of its sweet, delicious flavor and tender texture Maine lobster is the world’s most prized catch.

Fresh Caught Lobster

Lobster Season

Live Maine lobster is available year-round, with the bulk of the catch harvested in the summer and fall.

In the winter months many lobstermen pull their traps to avoid damage and danger of Nor’easters and other storms. The price of lobster, like most prices, is ruled by supply and demand, as well as, the weather. Lobster prices usually rise at the start of Memorial Day and drop as the season ends with Labor Day weekend. May and September are good times to buy hard-shell lobsters. In June and July, when lobster molting is at its peak, the majority of lobsters sold locally are soft-shell. Learn more about the best time to buy lobsters.

Hard Shell Lobsters

Lobsters grow by molting, or shedding their shells. Just after they molt, they are soft and fragile until their new shell has hardened. (It takes about 25 molts over 5-7 years for a lobster to grow to a minimum legal size, 1 pound.) Newly molted lobsters are called soft-shell or “new shell” lobsters. It is important to be aware of the quality and price of soft-shell lobsters. Soft-Shell lobsters have less meat in proportion to total body weight than hard-shell lobsters. Hard-shell meat is firmer, while soft-shell meat is softer and tends to have more water. Because soft-shell lobsters are not as strong as hard-shells, they do not ship well. This is why soft-shell lobster is always less expensive. Cracking a hard-shell Maine lobster takes some effort, but the results are more than worth it. Learn more about how to buyhard shell lobsters.

Lobster Fishing

Lobsters are caught in traps, marked by colorful buoys to identify the traps’ owners. If you happen to be out on a boat and come across one, don’t even think about pulling it up to take a look. There is no real authority specifically governing lobster traps, unless you count Smith & Wesson, and the notoriously short-tempered lobstermen, themselves.

Lobster Season

When the lobsters are taken from the trap, they are “banded” with strong rubber bands. Sometimes you might see wooden plugs inserted into the base of the claw. Do not remove the bands or plugs…they are there for your safety!!!

The State of Maine has very strict laws governing lobstering. Lobster traps may not be hauled at night and on Sundays during June through August in Maine waters (since 1967). In Maine it is illegal to keep lobsters under and over a certain size. Lobstermen use a special gauge to accurately measure the length of the lobster’s carapace (body)–from the eye socket to the beginning of the tail to ensure legal compliance. The legal minimum length is 3 1/4 inches. Lobsters under this length are call “shorts” or snappers” and must be thrown back into the ocean. Minimum sizes are enforced to make sure that lobsters are mature enough to breed at least once before they are harvested. When a female egg-bearing lobster is found, it is required by Maine law that a v-shaped notch be placed in the right tail flipper before releasing the lobster, in order to protect her so that she may continue to reproduce.

The maximum legal length of a lobster is 5 inches carapace-length; which are called “jumbos”. The maximum size limit is regulated to protect the breeding stock. A minimum size lobster will weigh around 1 pound, while a maximum size lobster will weigh between 3-4 pounds. The most plentiful and most popular size of Maine Lobster is between 1 1/4 – 1 1/2 pounds each.

Lobster Color

Contrary to popular belief, live lobsters are not red in color, but are actually a dark blue-green color because of the many different color pigments. When cooked, all of the pigments except for the red (astaxantbin) are hidden. Besides the typical colored lobsters, there are also rare yellow, red, blue and white specimens. About 1 in every 30 million lobsters is born with a blue shell. Lobsters are usually active at night and eat fish, crabs, clams, mussels, sea urchins and sometimes-other lobsters!

You can tell if a lobster is a male or a female by looking at their first pair of swimmerets found on the under body of the lobster. The swimmerets on the male are larger and bony; they are smaller and softer in the female.

Lobster Nutrition

Maine lobster is not only great tasting, it’s healthy – that is, if you go easy on the butter. It’s hard to believe, but Maine Lobster has less cholesterol, calories, and saturated fats than lean beef, skinless chicken and pork. Lobster is a good source of protein and omega-3 fatty acids, which are proven to reduce hardening of the arteries and risk of heart disease. Lobster is also high in amino acids, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, iron, vitamin A, and many of the B vitamins.

Lobster Cooking

Live lobster can be boiled, steamed, grilled, or baked. The white meat of the Maine lobster is located in the tail, claws, and knuckles. Meat can also be found in parts of the body and legs. The red material in the tail section is the coral “roe” or the female eggs and is considered a delicacy. The greenish material at the junction of the body and tail is “tomalley”, which is actually the liver, and has a very unique “peppery” taste used in many recipes.

Don’t worry about cooking live lobsters. Lobsters have a ganglionic nervous system (as opposed to a central nervous system), so they do not feel “pain” the same way that we do. The supposed “screaming” in the pot is actually the sound of steam escaping from the lobster’s shell.

Cooking a lobster longer than the recommended times usually makes the meat too tough. When properly cooked, lobster meat is a creamy white, shells are bright red and the two front antennae pull out easily. A 1-2 pound whole lobster serves one person. A pound of meat can be removed from four to six lobsters weighing 1.25 pounds (typical market size). Approximately two cups of lobster meat equals one pound. For more Maine lobster and seafood cooking instructions be sure to visit our seafood cooking and handling guide.

Though Maine lobster is best enjoyed “in the rough” (cooked whole in the shell), it lends itself to a variety of recipes and styles. Celebrate, anytime of year, anywhere in the country, with the finest live Maine Lobster from LobsterAnywhere.com.

Happy Cracking!


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